While these measures have still not made sufficient progress, Fabius turned to “Indabas”, according to the Zulu tradition, it was groups of elders who were summoned to try to discuss conflicts in the communities. They were first tested at the climate talks in Durban, South Africa, in 2011, and, according to the French plan, were made up of groups of up to 80 delegates who met at one time to dispel the differences that remain. Saturday night was the culmination not only of two weeks of discussions, but also of more than 23 years of international attempts by the United Nations to fight together against this global problem. Since 1992, all governments around the world have committed to taking action to prevent dangerous warming. These efforts have been marked by discord and failure, the refusal of the largest emitters to participate, ineffective agreements and ignored contracts. Paris presented an agreement that is considered “historic, sustainable and ambitious.” Both developed and developing countries must limit their emissions to a relatively safe level of 2oC, with a target of 1.5oC, and regular audits must be carried out to ensure that these obligations can be strengthened in accordance with scientific advice. Poor nations are funded through aid to help them reduce emissions and cope with the effects of extreme weather. Countries affected by climate disasters will receive urgent assistance. But it soon became clear that things would not go as planned. When countries reviewed the draft agreement, ministers began to raise their concerns. On Wednesday afternoon, the main delegations moved successively to Fabius` personal office: Edna Molewa of South Africa, Xie Zhenhua of China, John Kerry of the United States, Julie Bishop of Australia. On 10 June, the European Commission presented a proposal in Brussels for the European Union to ratify the Paris Agreement.

COP21 President Ségoléne Royal welcomed the decision (read the statement from the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Maritime Affairs). On 4 October 2016, the European Parliament voted overwhelmingly in favour of the EU ratifying the agreement. Praise for his masterful negotiating skills, Fabius brought together 195 countries to sign the first universal agreement in the history of climate negotiations at the Paris climate conference (COP21). He continued to focus his decades of political expertise on promoting environmental protection by launching and promoting the project of a Global Compact for the Environment, which would see the first binding universal legal framework for environmental protection. At 7:16 p.m., French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius abruptly returned to the stage, flanked by senior UN officials. The last-minute compromises have been resolved, he said. And all of a sudden, they were all standing. Fabius dropped the green gift, a symbol of the UN talks, and announced that a Paris agreement had been signed. Delegates applauded, clapped and whistled wildly, kissed and cried. Even the economist Lord Stern, usually reluctant, gasped. There was also the absurd informal “informal” in which a small group of delegates from different countries was tasked with addressing a small part of the controversial text, which was often as little as a paragraph at the time.

Their task was to remove the so-called “square staples” that refer to areas of disagreement over the text, and they met in small nurseries around the conference center, crouching on the floor in corridors or standing around a smartphone. The Paris Agreement provides a sustainable framework that guides global efforts for decades to come.


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