7. Consider the following statements regarding the international protocol and the critics of the treaties, stating that many of the agreements reached in Rio have not been implemented on such fundamental issues as the fight against poverty and environmental clean-up. The massive interest and participation of nations and non-governmental organizations at the Earth Summit has shown a change in attitude towards the environment. Scientific discoveries in the second half of the 20th century showed that human activity polluted the environment. Scientific knowledge has also shown that the pollution and depletion of natural resources that have occurred in one country could have a profound impact on the environment of other nations or on the entire planet. At the Earth Summit, heads of state and government from around the world developed plans and strategies for environmental protection involving national and local governments and NGOs. What are the following greenhouse gases included in the Kyoto Protocol? To ensure compliance with the Rio Agreements (particularly the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and Agenda 21), Earth Summit delegates established the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). In 2013, the CSD was replaced by the High-Level Policy Forum on Sustainable Development, which meets annually as part of ECOSOC meetings and every four years as part of the General Assembly. The Earth Summit has been hampered by disputes between the rich industrialized countries of the North (Western Europe and North America) and the poorest developing countries (Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and the regions of Asia). In general, the countries of the South have been reluctant to impede their economic growth with the environmental constraints imposed by the North, unless they have received increased financial support from the North, saying that they will contribute to environmentally friendly growth.

10. Consider the following statement (s) on the Air Protection (Pollution Prevention and Control) Act 1981. The stated objective of the UNFCCC is to enable governments to implement the following actions: collecting and exchanging information on greenhouse gas emissions, national policies and effective practices; Implementing national strategies to combat greenhouse gas emissions; and to cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the effects of global climate change. The UNFCCC contains a provision that industrialized countries provide financial and technological support to developing countries to address global climate change. The 1992 Earth Summit presented several long-term reports and implementation plans that continue to serve as the basis for international environmental action, including the World Summit for Sustainable Development (Earth Summit 2002) and the Kyoto Protocol. The 1992 Earth Summit gave the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Forest Principles and Agenda 21. The Earth Summit also led to the establishment of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). One of the great achievements of the summit was an agreement on the climate convention, which culminated in the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement. Another agreement was “not to conduct activities on aboriginal lands that cause environmental degradation or that would be culturally inappropriate.” Representatives from 113 countries and more than 400 NGOs attended the Stockholm conference. The conference drafted the statement of the conference on the human environment, which said that every human being deserves a healthy and clean environment. The conference also developed an action plan containing 109 specific recommendations for environmental improvement, including limiting the use of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

First published in 1993.


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